Dog owners are very in-tune with their canine best friends; you know how often they eat and drink, when they go to the bathroom, how much they like to play and much more. This is why many dog owners get immediate red flags when they notice something as simple as their dog suddenly drinking a lot more water or having to go to the bathroom in the middle of the night.
These two signs—excessive thirst and urination—are tell-tale symptoms of a common disease that is actually quite difficult to diagnose: Cushing’s disease. This disorder, also known as hyperadrenocorticism, involves an excess of cortisol in your dog’s body.
If you suspect your dog may be suffering from Cushing’s disease due to its displayed symptoms, read on to learn more about what it is and how you can help your beloved pup get through it.
What is Cushing’s Disease?
Cushing’s disease is an endocrine disorder that results in an excess amount of the natural hormone cortisol in the body. Cortisol in normal amounts helps your dog respond to stress, monitor its weight and regulate the immune system. Too little cortisol can result in health problems, as can too much.
The disease is a relatively common endocrine disorder in middle-aged and older dogs and it may be caused by one of three things:
- The most common cause is a benign (non-spreading) tumor on the pituitary gland, which rests at the base of the brain. Pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) causes 80-90% of Cushing’s disease cases.
- The disease may also be caused by a benign or malignant tumor on the adrenal glands, which are located near the kidneys and are responsible for producing cortisol. Adrenal-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (ADH) occurs in 15-20% of dogs with Cushing’s disease.
- The final cause is due to excess cortisol being absorbed by the body through medications or steroids used to treat another existing disorder. This is called Iatrogenic Cushing’s disease.
How Do I Know If My Dog Has Cushing's Disease?
Many of the symptoms of Cushing’s disease are shared with other common health problems in dogs, which makes the disorder difficult to diagnose. Veterinarians need to analyze symptoms as they relate to full body health and test results to determine Cushing’s disease as the final problem. Symptoms may include:
- Excessive thirst and urination
- Increased appetite
- Excessive panting
- Bloated appearance
- Recurring skin and urinary tract infections
- Hair loss
- Muscular atrophy
How Do I Treat Cushing’s Disease in My Dog?
Treatment for Cushing’s disease can be a lifelong endeavor for your dog and will require close monitoring and routine check-ups with a veterinarian to maintain a health and wellness plan. You and your pooch must be prepared for extended treatment to weather this disease. Based on the type of the disease your dog is diagnosed with, your treatment can look like one of the following:
- Iatrogenic Cushing’s disease: If the Cushing’s disease has been determined to be caused by steroid medications, your dog should be weaned off medications slowly to stop the increased levels of cortisol in the body. Once the medications have stopped, the Cushing’s disease symptoms should disappear, although the symptoms of the previous disorder may manifest again and need to be treated.
- PDH: If the disease is caused by a pituitary tumor, your vet may not begin treatment until your dog’s symptoms become more serious. More intense symptoms may be indicated by an increase in blood pressure, skin infections, excessive panting and increased drinking and eating.
- ADH: If the Cushing’s disease has been caused by an adrenal tumor, your vet will need to determine whether the tumor is benign or malignant before determining treatment. Both tumors can usually be removed through surgery, but malignant tumor cases will need to be monitored closely after to ensure the tumor does not return.
Once your dog exudes routine symptoms, your vet will likely prescribe one of two common medications, mitotane (Lysodren) or trilostane (Vetoryl). Both medications come with the risk of serious side effects, meaning your dog’s health will need to be monitored closely while taking the medication. You may also choose to use supplements to help support adrenal gland function during the course of medication treatment.
Side effects may include lethargy, weakness, vomiting, diarrhea, lack of appetite and difficulty waking. Any evidence of side effects should result in contacting your veterinarian immediately, so your dog’s medication can be regulated.
Living with a Dog with Cushing’s Disease
Dealing with your dog's Cushing’s disease can be extremely challenging. This is why it is so important to stay attentive to your dog’s behaviors and symptoms, so you make sure you’re taking him or her to the vet whenever necessary, so your pet isn't living in pain or discomfort. By having thorough communications with your veterinarian, you should be able to accurately diagnose your pooch and create a treatment plan for many more happy and comfortable years to come.